This led to investigations by Congress and the NSA and Do D Inspectors General. It also included offensive cyber-warfare capabilities, like injecting malware into remote computers.
Congress criticized Turbulence in 2007 for having similar bureaucratic problems as Trailblazer.
The NSA mounted a major effort to secure tactical communications among U. However a variety of technical and operational problems limited their use, allowing the North Vietnamese to exploit and intercept U. The White House asserted that the NSA interception had provided "irrefutable" evidence that Libya was behind the bombing, which U. President Ronald Reagan cited as a justification for the 1986 United States bombing of Libya.
In 1999, a multi-year investigation by the European Parliament highlighted the NSA's role in economic espionage in a report entitled 'Development of Surveillance Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information'.
In 2013, the NSA had many of its secret surveillance programs revealed to the public by Edward Snowden, a former NSA contractor.
Internationally, research has pointed to the NSA's ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries through "boomerang routing". A code and cipher decryption unit was established as the Cable and Telegraph Section which was also known as the Cipher Bureau. During the course of the war it was relocated in the army's organizational chart several times. It absorbed the navy's Cryptanalysis functions in July 1918. Army cryptographic section of military intelligence, known as MI-8, in 1919, the U. government created the Cipher Bureau, also known as Black Chamber.
(Some incoming traffic was also directed instead to Britain's GCHQ for the time being.) Director Michael Hayden called the outage a "wake-up call" for the need to invest in the agency's infrastructure.